PHY.K02UF Molecular and Solid State Physics


Phonons are quantized particles of sound. Similar to photons, the phonon energy is related to the frequency of the sound waves E = hf and the phonon momentum is related to the wavelength of the sound waves p = h/λ. Sound waves with wavelengths much longer than the lattice constant of a crystal, are described by the wave equation. The wave equation was quantizied in the section on the quantization of the electromagnetic field and the quantization of sound proceeds similarly. A table summarizing the results for phonons is given below.

Kittel chapter 4: Crystal vibrations or R. Gross und A. Marx: Dynamik des Kristallgitters
Kittel chapter 5: Phonons and lattice vibrations R. Gross und A. Marx: Thermische Eigenschaften des Kristallgitters

Table summarizing the properties of phonons
Phonon software
Using complex numbers to describe oscillations
International Tables for Crystallography: Phonons
Phonon dispersion
Java Phonon Applet
Program to calculate phonon dispersion of fcc crystals The solid state simulation project
Ashcroft and Mermin: Chapters 22-26
A recent article on phonons: Phonon spectrum and specific heat of silicon nanowires, Y. Zhang, J. X. Cao, Y. Xiao, and X. H. Yan, Journal of Applied Physics 102,104303 (2007).
Weißmantel und Hamann: 5.2 Gitterdynamik des Festkörpern, 5.3 Spezifische Wärmekapazität von Festkörpern